These Model Instructions are provided only as examples of how the instructions are intended to be used. 3: Automobile collision; comparative negligence; wrongful death damages; Fabre issue, Model Instruction No. 760.01–760.11. Please note instruction 403.17 (updated linked below) has changed. 2d 17 (Fla. 1985); Zell v. Meek, 665 So. Revisions in the Model Instructions often lag some time behind revisions in the substantive charges the use of which is illustrated in the Model Instructions. 298 (Eng.H.L.1982)].” Zell v. Meek, 665 So. The instructions for an independent action for contribution begin with instruction 412.3. See Kloepfel v. Bokor, 149 Wn.2d 192, 193 n.1, 66 P.3d 630 (2003) (the two causes of action are “synonyms for the same tort”); Robel v. injured party by one tortfeasor; independent contribution claim by him against others; reasonableness of settlement as well as liability contested, Model Instruction No. ~ From the Rules Regulating The Florida Bar. 7: Product liability case; negligence and strict liability claims; comparative negligence defense; aggravation of pre-existing injury. Instruction 412.1 deals with cross-claims in an injured party’s case and instruction 412.2 deals with third-party claims in an injured party’s action. Proximity to the accident in time and space does not necessarily mean only direct and immediate sight or hearing at the scene of the accident. Justice Garman filed a special concurrence, noting that while the impact rule continued to apply to any attempt to allege negligent infliction of emotional distress, that rule did not limit plaintiffs who sought to recover emotional distress damages for other recognized torts. Some accidents cause more than just bodily harm. Each set has a home page and a page listing instructions. 451 Fiduciary Duty (Shared Instructions with Contract and Business). They may be changed on a case-by-case basis depending on the rulings and facts in a particular case. The underlying concept is that one has a legal duty to use reasonable care to avoid causing emotional distress to another individual. Suing for Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress. The tort of “negligent infliction of emotional distress” is recognized in Florida. The essence of impact is that the “outside force or substance, no matter how large or small, visible or invisible, and no matter that the effects are not immediately deleterious, touch or enter into the plaintiff’s body.” Id. Always refer to the standard instructions and forms provided in Parts I through VIII. Model Instruction No. For cases involving allegations of negligence of professions other than medical or legal, instructions 402.11(a) and (b) and 402.12(a) and (b) should be appropriately modified. Model form of verdict for general negligence with apportionment of fault, PUNITIVE DAMAGE INSTRUCTIONS FOR CAUSES OF ACTION ARISING PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1, 1999, Criminal & Jimmy Ryce Instructions:EMAIL Bart Schneider - Staff Contact, State CourtsEMAIL Jett Conn - Staff Contact, State CourtsEMAIL the Committee, Civil Instructions:EMAIL Krys Godwin - Staff Contact, The Florida Bar What are a lawyer’s obligations to a suicidal client? Image courtesy of Flickr by Taber Andrew Bain (no changes). Model form of verdict for statute of limitations defense in a medical negligence case, 5a. Champion at 21–22. 75-198, Laws of Fla.), the instructions should be revised as necessary. 2. See Fla.R.Civ.P. 5: Injury in three-car collision; settlement with The court again outlined the elements required to allege negligent infliction of emotional distress: 1) the plaintiff must suffer a physical injury; 2) the plaintiff’s physical injury must be caused by the psychological trauma; 3) the plaintiff must be involved in some way in the event which caused the negligent injury to another; and 4) the person must have a close personal relationship to the directly … Champion v. Gray , 478 So. That [ name of defendant] was negligent; 2. Serious emotional distress exists if an ordinary, reasonable person would be unable to cope with the mental stress engendered by the circumstances of the case. 2d 1048 (Fla. 1995). (Defendant) denies that claim and that (describe any affirmative defenses). Negligence is the failure to use reasonable care, which is the care that a reasonably careful person would use under like circumstances. The committee made arbitrary decisions about various factors involved in each hypothetical case, and the Model Instructions are not intended to be incorporated entirely into a court’s instruction. EMAIL the Committee, Contract & Business Instructions:EMAIL Mikalla Davis - Staff Contact, The Florida BarEMAIL the Committee, Website Help & Feedback: The jury instructions given would be governed by the principles for the type of tort involved and the resulting damages. About the Site: Standard Jury Instructions for each type — Criminal, Civil, Jimmy Ryce (Involuntary Civil Commitment), and Contract and Business cases — are prepared by the Florida Supreme Court Standard Jury Instructions Committees. 2d 1048 (Fla. 19951. "Negligent infliction of emotional distress" (NEID) is a personal injury law concept that arises when one person (the defendant) acts so carelessly that he or she must compensate the injured person (the plaintiff) for resulting mental or emotional injury. The Florida Supreme Court recently reaffirmed that a discernible physical injury is required to state a claim for negligent infliction of emotional distress. The claims in this case are as follows. 1. The Florida Litigation Guide Provides Everything A Lawyer Needs To Know AboutEmotional Distress, Negligent Infliction Including The Elements, The Citations To The Most Recent State And Federal Court Cases Citing The Cause Of Action, The Statute Of Limitations, … Id. In this way these two elements of negligent infliction of emotional distress serve to limit the scope of the cause of action in a manner that is comparable to the extreme and outrageous conduct that must be established in order to prove intentional infliction of emotional distress (cf. *[In order to be regarded as a legal cause of [loss] [injury] [or] [damage], negligence need not be its only cause.] Model form of verdict for wrongful death damages, 3a. 2. See generally, Willis v. Gami Golden Glades, LLC , 967 So. The negligent infliction of emotional distress instructions are in a format and style consistent with that approved by the Court in 2010 when the Court authorized for publication and use the reorganization of the civil jury instructions. More About Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress (“NIED”) Both claims for emotional distress necessarily typically arise out of situations where the plaintiff was not harmed in some other, physical way otherwise the plaintiff would have another tort claim such as negligence or battery. 2d 1048 (Fla. 1995). The issues you must decide on (claimant’s) claim against (defendant) are: whether (claimant) was involved in some way in (describe the event) that caused injury to (name of injured/deceased); 1. Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. v. McCarson, 467 So.2d 277 (Fla. 1985). But not all emotional injuries are caused by intentional or reckless action—sometimes ordinary negligence is to blame. In Florida, for an emotional distress claim to be successful, you must be “physically impacted.” If you were never “harmed” or “touched” physically, your case will be disregarded in most instances. Please bookmark the site for your convenience. The committee has, therefore, included all such claims in a single section. We will focus on the second kind of emotional distress claim allowed under Florida law, negligent infliction of emotional distress. The Supreme Court Committee on Standard Jury Instructions in Civil Cases submits this new set of instructions to the Florida Standard Jury Instructions in Civil Cases to address tort actions of negligent infliction of emotional distress. The tort of “intentional infliction of emotional distress” is recognized in Florida. These instructions should not be given if the plaintiff suffered an impact of any type. 2d 1048 (Fla. 1995). In this article, we'll discuss how an NEID claim works. Members of the jury, you have now heard and received all of the evidence in this case. Four mindfulness practices for these times. These instructions are (slightly) different from what I gave you at the beginning and it is these rules of law that you must now follow.] The committee has therefore drafted the following special verdict forms. The torts of intentional infliction of emotional distress and outrage are identical, although outrage also encompasses reckless conduct. [Name of plaintiff] claims that [name of defendant]'s conduct caused [him/her] to suffer serious emotional distress. Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress To establish a claim of negligent infliction of emotional distress under Pennsylvania law, a plaintiff must prove that: (1) he or she was near the scene of an accident or negligent act; (2) shock or distress resulted from a direct emotional … Please contact the relevant committee or staff person if you have questions or are interested in the work of the committee. Traditionally, it has been precedent in Florida that for one’s actions to rise to the level of intentional infliction of emotional distress, those actions must be shown to be “so outrageous in character, and so extreme in degree, as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency, and to be regarded as atrocious, and utterly intolerable in a civilized community.” 2d 17, 22 (Fla. 1985). DO NOT, therefore, rely on the Model Instructions for correct wording when preparing instructions. These substantive instructions should be followed by the applicable sections from Damages, Substantive Instructions — General, and Closing Instructions (Before Final Argument). 448.101–105 (Florida’s private-sector whistle-blower provisions). 2d 846, 850 (Fla. 2007). Here are the jury instructions for California. Model form of verdict for non-bifurcated punitive damage cases, 4. 2d 17 (Fla. 1985); Zell v. Meek , 665 So. Should you copy your client on emails to opposing counsel? 665 So. This post addresses the status of Virginia law regarding negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) and a recent proposal to extend recovery to more potential plaintiffs. 2d 17 (Fla. 1985); Zell v. Meek, 665 So. 4: Automobile collision; comparative negligence; Model form of verdict for emergency medical treatment; issue as to the applicability of, 5c. Fla. July 28, 2008) (right to jury trial pursuant to the private-sector whistle-blower’s provisions, F.S. 2d 17 (Fla. 1985) and Zell v. Meek , 665 So. 478 So. However, with the advent of special verdicts and bifurcation of issues, it is now common for cases to be submitted to the jury with a special verdict. 2d 846, 850 (Fla. 2007). this claim, [ name of plaintiff] must prove all of the following: 1. The jury in Miller found the employees were not liable for false imprisonment, battery, or negligent infliction of emotional distress and loss of consortium. Negligent infliction of emotional distress is a legal cause of action in Nevada that is generally brought by someone who witnesses a close family member being injured in an accident. These instructions cover both types of claims. The hypothetical facts upon which each instruction is based are set forth before the instruction. NOTES ON USE FOR 420. (Claimant) claims that (defendant) was negligent in (describe alleged negligence) which caused [him] [her] emotional distress. This web site contains standard jury instructions prepared by the Florida Supreme Court Standard Jury Instructions Committees. A Plaintiff always bears the “burden of proof” to prove EACH ELEMENT below. The Florida Standard Jury Instructions for Criminal, Civil, Jimmy Ryce (Involuntary Civil Commitment), and Contract and Business cases are now available on a new website: https://jury.flcourts.org. The instructions in this section are based upon F.S. Here, the person responsible might not have intended to cause your emotional distress, but instead acted in a way that violated some duty of care not to cause you harm. That’s why, under certain circumstances, Florida law allows personal injury victims to seek compensation for emotional injuries. Mental anguish and emotional distress. 6: Claimant suing three alleged joint tortfeasors; comparative negligence in issue; contribution shares to be determined in action, Model Instruction No. The jury awarded damages for "the shock to the parental feelings, 2d 1048 (Fla. 1995). This would include but not be limited to the factual situation found in McLoughlin [v. O’Brian, [1982] 2 All E.R. Model form of verdict for emergency medical treatment; no issue as to the applicability of, 5b. In instances in which changes have been made to adapt the standard instructions to the circumstances of the hypothetical case, the committee has italicized the instructions. 403 Products Instruction Document contains all instructions outlined below. A plaintiff is the direct victim of negligent infliction of emotional distress if: The defendant exhibited negligent conduct, and Professional negligence claims are, for the most part, similar. The following Model Jury Instructions are included to illustrate the use of Florida Standard Jury Instructions. Negligence is doing something that a reasonably careful person would not do under like circumstances or failing to do something that a reasonably careful person would do under like circumstances. These instructions are in proper form for use in negligence actions. Whether the contribution claim is a cross-claim, a third party action or an independent claim, it should be submitted to the jury with a form of special verdict by which the jury determines the relative degrees of fault of the defendants and any third party (see, for example, Model Instruction No. Interested parties have until May 15, 2018, to submit comments electronically or by mail to the Civil Committee at [email protected], to the Chair of the Committee, Laura Whitmore, Shook, Hardy & Bacon, 100 N. Tampa, Street, Suite 2900, Tampa, FL 33602-5810, [email protected], and a copy to the Florida Bar liaison for the Committee, Heather Savage Telfer, The Florida Bar, 651 E. Jefferson Street, Tallahassee 32399-6523, [email protected]. See,e.g., Zell v. Meek, 665 So.2d 1048 (Fla. 1995). Restatement (Second) of Torts § 313(2) says that the general rule for negligent infliction of emotional distress where the plaintiff suffers emotional distress as a result of fear for his own safety does not apply to illness or bodily harm “caused by emotional distress arising solely from harm or peril to a third person, unless the negligence of the actor has otherwise created an unreasonable risk of bodily harm to the” … 6). The boundaries of this cause of action, the persons who may recover, and the relationships that form the basis of recovery will be established by the courts of this state on a case by case basis. causing [ name of plaintiff ]’s serious emotional distress. The elements of negligent infliction of emotional distress are found in Champion v. Gray , 478 So. Rather, there may be recovery in instances where there is a direct perception of some of the events making up the entire accident, including the immediate aftermath of the accident. 2: Automobile collision; driver’s comparative negligence including failure to wear seat belt; aggravation of pre-existing injury; multiple events, Model Instruction No. Model form of verdict for bifurcated punitive damage cases, 3b. The tort of “negligent infliction of emotional distress” is recognized in Florida. If the greater weight of the evidence does not support (claimant’s) claim, your verdict should be for (defendant) . However, the jury found Wal-Mart negligent in hiring, training, and supervising the employees and that this negligence was a cause of damage to Miller. 3. Historically, a general verdict on compensatory damages was considered appropriate, and that is the only form of verdict provided in the Florida Rules of Civil Procedure. Champion v. Gray, 478 So. 727-252-4491; info@bikeflorida.org; 611 S. Fort Harrison Ave, Ste 326 Clearwater FL 33756 1602-1604, regarding the elements of intentional infliction of emotional distress, should be given with this instruction. The instructions in this section are based upon the Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992 (FCRA), which makes it unlawful for an employer to discriminate based upon race, color, religion, sex, pregnancy, national origin, age, handicap, or marital status. Now, this brings up an important aspect of any negligent infliction of emotional distress claim in the state of Florida: the impact rule. Relationship to intentional infliction of emotional distress. Interested parties have until May 15, 2018, to submit comments electronically or by mail to the Civil Committee at sjicivil@flcourts.org, to the Chair of the Committee, Laura Whitmore, Shook, Hardy & Bacon, 100 N. Tampa, Street, Suite 2900, Tampa, FL … Model form of verdict for emergency medical treatment; issues as to both applicability of, Model form of verdict for personal injury protection insurance benefits (PIP) (medical benefits only), Read Alerts and Proposals for Comments (Criminal Home), Committee Members (including application), Former Civil Jury Instructions (Pre-reorg). Florida law recognizes emotional distress when someone experiences mental suffering due to … The negligent infliction of emotional distress instructions are in a format and style consistent with that approved by the Court in 2010 when the Court authorized for publication and use the reorganization of the civil jury instructions. 2. [You will recall at the beginning of the case I told you that if, at the end of the case I decided that different law applies, I would tell you so. All rights reserved. claim and counterclaim, Model Instruction No. Champion v. Gray, 478 So. “The requirement that the physically injured person be directly involved in the event causing the original injury must also be scrutinized on a case-by-case basis. The tort of “negligent infliction of emotional distress” is recognized in Florida. Champion, at 21–22 (Alderman, J., concurring specially). 1: Automobile collision; comparative negligence; single claimant and defendant; no counterclaim; no-fault issue; witnesses testifying in foreign language; instructions for beginning and end of case; use of special verdict in burden of proof and damage instructions, Model Instruction No. 420 Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress. 413 Claim for Personal Injury Protection Insurance (PIP) Benefits (Medical Benefits Only), 414 Intentional Tort as an Exception to Exclusive Remedy of Workers’ Compensation. The boundaries of this cause of action, the persons who may recover, and the relationships that form the basis of recovery will be established by the courts of this state on a case-by-case basis. The boundaries of this cause of action, the persons who may recover, and the relationships that form the basis of recovery will be established by the courts of this … 4. ‘To inculcate in its members the principles of duty and service to the public, to improve the administration of justice, and to advance the science of jurisprudence.’ F.S. I am now going to tell you about the rules of law that you must use in reaching your verdict. The numbers of the instructions used in the examples are indicated within brackets. When I finish telling you about the rules of law, the attorneys will present their final arguments and you will then retire to decide your verdict. Employment — Jason Odom (Materials, Pages 30–84). To best understand the current status of this cause of action, an historic perspective is helpful. 2d 17 (Fla. 1985): Zell v. Meek. Howell v New York Post Co., 81 NY2d at 121). CACI Nos. To sue someone for emotional pain and suffering, you have to be able to show that they were negligent or reckless in some way and that their actions led to your emotional distress. 420 Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress. As to the right to trial by jury, see Fox v. City of Pompano Beach, 984 So.2d 664 (Fla. 4th DCA 2008), and O’Neal v. Fla. A & M University, 989 So.2d 6 (Fla. 1st DCA 2008) (right to jury trial pursuant to the Whistle-blower Act, F.S. That [ name of defendant ]’s negligence was a substantial factor in. If there was an impact, the jury instructions given would be governed by the principles for the type of tort involved and the resulting damages. The boundaries of this tort, particularly when the claimant is a third party affected by conduct occurring between the defendant and another person, are not clearly defined. The tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) is a controversial cause of action, which is available in nearly all U.S. states but is severely constrained and limited in the majority of them. Washington plaintiffs may recover mental anguish damages under two theories: (1) intentional or willful infliction of emotional distress, see Cagle v. Burns and Roe, Inc., 106 Wn.2d 911, 916, 726 P.2d 434 (1986); or (2) negligent infliction of emotional distress… If contribution is found to be appropriate in tort actions other than for negligence (but see the title to Ch. ; Williams v. City of Minneola, 575 So.2d 683 (Fla. 5th DCA 1991); M. M. v. M. P. S., 556 So.2d 1140 (Fla. 3d DCA 1989); Ford Motor Credit Co. v. Sheehan, 373 So.2d 956 (Fla. 1st DCA 1979); Restatement (2d) of Torts, §46. 416 See Standard Jury Instructions in Contracts and Business Cases. Download the Entire Set of Instructions PDF | Word, Section 600: Substantive Instructions – General, Appendix C – Punitive Damage Instructions – cases prior to 10/1/99. The instructions are provided for your use. Depending on the facts of the case, a plaintiff could choose one or both of the bracketed choices in element 2. Form 1.986(a). Feedback & Technical Assistance Form. That [ name of plaintiff] suffered serious emotional distress; and. Negligent infliction of emotional distress, on the other hand, requires five thing be established: (1) a legal duty recognized by law; (2) a breach of that duty; (3) a causal connection between the defendant’s conduct and the plaintiff’s injury; (4) actual loss or damage, and Negligence may also be a legal cause of [loss] [injury] [or] [damage] even though it operates in combination with [the act of another] [some natural cause] [or] [some other cause] occurring after the negligence occurs if [such other cause was itself reasonably foreseeable and the negligence contributes substantially to producing such [loss] [injury] [or] [damage]] [or] [the resulting [loss] [injury] [or] [damage] was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the negligence and the negligence contributes substantially to producing it]. 112.3187-31895); Rodriguez v. Casson-Mark Corp., 2008 WL 2949520 (M.D. It can also be brought directly by someone who is the victim of a negligent act that causes the victim great emotional suffering. These categories and their boundaries are debatable and in flux, due to the unique influence upon them of both federal and Florida constitutional law as well as the common law. If a professional malpractice case involves a claim of product defect, jury instructions for such claims should be adopted from the applicable sections of this book. Champion v, Gray. The tort of "negligent infliction of emotional distress" is recognized in Florida. “Greater weight of the evidence” means the more persuasive and convincing force and effect of the entire evidence in the case. for negligent infliction of emotional distress if the defendant owed a direct duty to the plaintiff, there was a breach of that duty, and the mental anguish was genuine.' The Punitive Damages report also is in progress. Sample jury instructions – California CACI 1620 negligent infliction of emotional distress. There are three alternative instructions on defamation liability issues, 405.7, 405.8 and 405.9. Odom provided the report of the Subcommittee. 2d 1048, 1052–53 (Fla. 1995) quoting Champion v. Gray, 478 So. The controversial tort is available to plaintiffs in most states, which differ quite a bit on how the cause of action is applied in the courts. See generally Willis v. Gami Golden Glades, LLC, 967 So. Criminal – How to Use the Standard Instructions, Civil – How to Use the Standard Instructions, Contract & Business – How to Use the Standard Instructions, Jimmy Ryce – How to Use the Standard Instructions, Appendix C – Punitive Damage Instructions, The Theory and Technique of Charging a Jury with These Instructions, Original Introduction from Inaugural Committee, Orders of the Supreme Court Creating and Revising These Instructions, Members of the Committee Since Its Inception, 201.2 Introduction of Participants and Their Roles, 201.3 Explanation of the Voir Dire Process, 202.5 Jury to Be Guided by Official English Translation/Interpretation, 301.1 Deposition Testimony, Interrogatories, Stipulated Testimony, Stipulations, and Admissions, 301.2 Instruction when First Item of Documentary, Photographic, or Physical Evidence Is Admitted, 301.3 Instruction when Evidence Is First Published to Jurors, 301.4 Instruction Regarding Visual or Demonstrative Aids, 301.5 Evidence Admitted for a Limited Purpose, 301.6 Jury to Be Guided by Official English Translation/Interpretation, 301.7 Jury to Be Guided by Official English Transcript of Recording in Foreign Language (Accuracy Not in Dispute), 301.8 Jury to Be Guided by Official English Translation/Interpretation — Transcript of Recording in Foreign Language (Accuracy in Dispute), 301.11 Failure to Maintain Evidence or Keep a Record, 413 Claim for Personal Injury Protection (PIP) Benefits (Medical Benefits only), 414 Intentional Tort As an Exception to Exclusive Remedy of Workers’ Compensation, Standard Jury Instructions in Contracts and Business Cases, 401.8 Violation of Non-Traffic Penal Statute as Negligence per Se, 401.9 Violation of Statute, Ordinance, or Regulation as Evidence of Negligence, 401.10 Equal and Reciprocal Rights of Motorists and Pedestrians, 401.14 Preliminary Issues — Vicarious Liability, 401.15 Preliminary Issues — Common Carrier, 401.17 Burden of Proof on Preliminary Issues, 401.18 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — General Negligence, 401.19 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Common Carrier, 401.20 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Premises Liability, 401.24 Counterclaims, Cross Claims, and Third Party Claims, 402.7 Legal Cause (Treatment Without Informed Consent), 402.9 Preliminary Issues — Vicarious Liability, 402.10 Burden of Proof on Preliminary Issues, 402.12 Issues on Claim of Attorney Malpractice Arising Out of Civil Litigation, 403.5 Implied Warranty of Merchantability, 403.6 Implied Warranty of Fitness for Particular Purpose, 403.11 Inference of Product Defect or Negligence, 403.14 Burden of Proof on Preliminary Issue, 403.16 Issues on Crashworthiness and “Enhanced Injury” Claims, 404.4 Insurer’s Bad Faith (Failure to Settle), 404.5 Medical Malpractice Insurer’s Bad Faith Failure to Settle, 404.9 Concluding Instruction when Court to Award Damages, 404.10 Damages (Cases with Claims for Mental Distress), 404.11 Burden of Proof on Mental Distress Claim, 405.7 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Plaintiff a Public Official or Public Figure, 405.8 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Plaintiff a Private Individual and a Media Defendant, 405.9 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Private Claimant, Non-Media Defendant, 406.6 Instituting or Continuing a Proceeding, 408.5 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Interference with Contract not Terminable at Will, 408.6 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Interference with Business Relationship or with Contract Terminable at Will, 409.7 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Fraudulent Misrepresentation, 409.8 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — Negligent Misrepresentation, 409.9 Issues on Plaintiff’s Claim — False Information Negligently Supplied for the Guidance of Others, 412.1 Contribution Sought by Cross-Claims Between Defendant Tortfeasors in Injured Party’s Original Action, 412.2 Contribution Sought by Third Party Claim in Injured Party’s Original Action, 412.3 Introduction for Independent Contribution Claim, 412.8 Issues on Claim and Burden of Proof, 415.4 Retaliation; Adverse Employment Action, 415.8 Preliminary Issue – Adverse Employment Action, 415.9 Burden of Proof on Preliminary Issue, 415.13 Defense Issue on Damages (Mitigation-Discharge), 415.14 Reduction of Damages to Present Value, 417.4 Discrimination — Disparate Treatment, 417.10 Affirmative Defense — Failure to Mitigate Lost Wages, 417.11 Affirmative Defense — After-Acquired Evidence, 417.12 Reduction of Damages to Present Value, 451.4 Existence of Fiduciary Duty Disputed, 451.8 Preliminary Issue — Vicarious Liability, 451.9 Burden of Proof on Preliminary Issues, 451.14 Model Form of Verdict for Breach of Fiduciary Duty, 501.1 Personal Injury and Property Damages: Introduction, 501.2 Personal Injury and Property Damages: Elements, 501.4 Comparative Negligence, Non-Party Fault and Multiple Defendants, 501.5 Other Contributing Causes of Damages, 501.7 Reduction of Damages to Present Value, 502.1 Wrongful Death Damages: Introduction, 502.2 Wrongful Death Damages: Elements for Estate and Survivors, 502.3 Wrongful Death Damages of Estate and Survivors: Separate Awards for Estate and Survivors, 502.4 Wrongful Death Damages: Elements when There Are No Survivors, 502.5 Comparative Negligence, Non-Party Fault, and Multiple Defendants, 502.7 Reduction of Damages to Present Value, 503.1 Punitive Damages – Bifurcated Procedure, 503.2 Punitive Damages – Non-Bifurcated Procedure, 601.3 Jury to Be Guided by Official English Translation/Interpretation, 601.4 Multiple Claims, Numerous Parties, Consolidated Cases, 601.5 Concluding Instruction (Before Final Argument), 801.1 Juror Questions During Deliberations, 801.4 Instructions upon Discharge of Jury, Model form of verdict for general negligence with apportionment of fault, 2a. 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